Aftermath: Art in the Wake of World War One at Tate Britain

Tate Britain is currently exploring the impact of the First World War on British, German and French art.  The exhibition, Aftermath: Art in the Wake of World War One, is on until 24 September 2018 in the Lower Floor Special Exhibition space and it is definitely worth seeing.  To find out more click here.

The exhibition is spread over eight rooms.  It starts with a reminder of how artists documented the destruction of the war itself.  There are paintings, sculpture, photographs and video; contributions from British artists such as Paul Nash and William Orpen and German sculptor, Wilhelm Lehmbruch.  There are familiar images of skeletal trees, crosses marking graves and dead bodies or simply a discarded helmet to represent the dead.  Seeing these images, makes me wonder how anyone thinks that war is an acceptable thing or, at the very least, how we cannot allocate at least as much money to peacekeeping and peacebuilding activities as we do to war machines and training men and women to kill.  In general, I found it difficult to approach the exhibition as art, looking simply at the aesthetics.  It felt more like pain and definitely history.

The second room looks at how artists remembered the war, particularly their contributions to public memorials in France and Britain and Belgium.  Germany did not have a national memorial until 1931.  I wondered all the way through whether there was a difference in the way the victors responded compared to the defeated but that idea wasn’t tackled explicitly so it was left to my interpretation of the images chosen by the curators.

In July 1919 acts of remembrance took place in both London and Paris.  Frank Owen Salisbury painted The passing of the Unknown Warrior showing the gun carriage carrying the coffin passing the Cenotaph, accompanied by HM King George V and his most senior military men and politicians.  They were all old white mean and I wanted to ask them: what are you doing to keep the peace?

William Orpen painted To the unknown British soldier in France.  A coffin, draped in the Union Flag, sits in the splendour of the palace at Versailles.  It is an impressive piece of work but also, beside it, you can see the original version with a cherub above the coffin and two nearly naked skeletal figures wearing soldiers’ helmets flanking it.  These were painted out but the image on the right is starting to be visible again through the covering paint.  You can see what they used to look like if you look in Room 3 for the same painter’s Blown Up from 1917,  This shows an image of a soldier, his clothes almost all blown off, what’s left hanging in rags around him, still holding his rifle in the middle of the battlefield.

This shows the sort of censoring and self-censoring that occurred in all the countries.  Civilians did not want to keep being remembered about the horror of war.  The military did not want civilian morale to be adversely affected.  Everything needed to look glorious.

There were other reasons for censorship.  Ernst Barlach (born & worked in Germany), created the horizontal statue Der Schwebende (The Floating One) for a memorial.  The image was seen as an affront to military rectitude and power because it is horizontal.  Hence, it was “degenerate” to the Nazis who had it melted down in 1937.  It was recast after WWII.

This may be a sobering topic but there are some beautiful pieces of figurative art, portraying the detail of soldiers’ uniforms and kit.  For example, Charles Sargeant Jagger’s figures for the memorial in Hyde Park London, which I recently noticed from a bus and gave it more thought.  You can see one, Driver, leaning back, his arms stretched out almost as if he were on a cross, a great cape covering him and also Letter from Home 1922.  I could imagine the soldier looking up from reading his letter and starting to talk, to complain about the cold and the wet, no doubt.

The interpretation points out that most of the images are of white men; nothing commemorates the soldiers of the Empires who fought for the mother countries of Britain, France and Germany.  There are some women artists, for example, Käthe Kollwitz (born & worked in Germany).  In room 2 you can see her designs for and pictures of Die Eltern (The Parents), for Roggeweld military cemetery, in Belgium.  She focussed on the grief of those left behind and ended up creating two separate statues, one of the mother, one of the father, to show how isolating grief is.  Later in the exhibition, you can see her print series, War, which again focuses on the effect the war had at home.

I was pleased that I recognised Stanley Spencer’s style when I saw his Unveiling Cookham’s War Memorial 1922.  The interpretation tells of the reading out of the names of the dead.  This was apparently done at war memorials around the country for a long time.  This is not something I have ever experienced myself.  I thought the reading out of the names – recently associated with post 9/11 terror attacks – was a new idea.

After the memorialising, rooms 3 and 4 look at Traces of War, starting with wounded soldiers in room 3.  This was mostly French and German artists who portrayed soldiers with disfigurements and missing limbs out and about in the street or trying to learn a new trade.  Meanwhile, in Britain, Henry Tonks who was a surgeon and artist drew before and after pictures of facial reconstruction surgery to be included in patients’ notes.  It seemed a very different response.  Did we British treat our veterans better or keep them better hidden?

Room 4 covered Surrealism and Dadaism, which were artistic responses to the trauma.  Placing these art movements in the context of the war made them suddenly make more sense to me, although I’m still not sure that I particularly like them.  There was one British artist, Edward Burra, the rest being mostly German.  I wondered whether this was a fair representation of the active artists or not.  Room 5 covered The Print Portfolio, an important medium for artists in France and Germany, but not in Britain, where you can see the artist as activist, protesting about political matters or illustrating injustices and dangers.

The German art is often a statement against the military and artists were prosecuted for “slandering the military”.  I wondered whether this is evidence that there might have been a second war, even without the Nazis taking power, because the German state was heavily influenced by the military and militarism.

There were more British artists on display in Room 6, which looked at the Return to Order movement.  This returned to more classic genres of landscape and portrait although rejecting the geometric and mechanised forms that were common before the war, or so I’m told.  They produced more precision and clarity amidst the “chaotic economic and political climate”.  Here there are paintings by Paul Nash and his brother John, Henry Moore, George Clausen and David Jones filling maybe a bit less than half the room with the rest German, French, Swiss and Spanish (Picasso).

Rooms 7 and 8 then look at the way artists imagined the post-war society, first the people and then the cities.  Works from different countries are often hung in pairs, suggesting a contrast in the different treatments of subjects in the different countries.

I enjoyed the exhibition very much and was moved by many of the artworks.  I particularly enjoyed seeing art from the three countries.  I did find it a history lesson, as much as an art exhibition, and I did wonder whether I was seeing a truly representative sample of the art from the three countries.  From this exhibition, it seems that Germany in particular but also France were in turmoil in the inter-war period and that Britain had the leisure for nostalgia and a more positive, forward-looking attitude.  And, yet, I know that Britain faced turmoil itself: Irish Independence, movements for workers’ rights and the great Depression to name but three elements of that.  I wonder if there are more stories to be told about the aftermath of war.

For those who want a longer read, what follow are my highlights from the different rooms starting back in Room 4 on Dadaism and Surrealism, where one exception to the weight of German artists was Frenchman, André Masson.  You can see his La Route de Picardie (The Picardy Road) 1924. Based on his memories of serving on the Western Front, this is recognisably a landscape but it is painted with strange shapes, including bare trees in the foreground, painted in a soft Autumnal palette – pastel greens and browns.  I actually found it quite peaceful not at all sinister as the interpretation suggested.

After painting from his memories, Masson turned to “automatic painting”, “a way of releasing a flow of images from the unconscious”.  For Lancelot 1927, he applied glue randomly, cast sand on it and then added paint in response to the resulting shapes.  He saw a warrior but I’m not sure I did – maybe not as automatic as he thought – his vision still clouded by his memories.

In Room 6, I really liked George Clausen’s The Road, Winter Morning, from 1923.  I could feel the cold of the morning as I looked at the cart driving away from me, the driver huddled down, the sun from the left, and bare trees reaching up into the sky. Actually, it says winter morning but the picture shows some flowers – maybe it is early spring, late February.

There were two sculptures of women providing an interesting contrast.  Briton Eric Gill produced Mankind 1927-28 showing a female form, with a fashionable slim figure, like a flapper.  Frenchman Aristide Maillol Produced Vénus au collier (Venus with a Necklace) c.1918 –28, cast 1930 which was distinctly more curved and rounded in a more classic style.  I think it was the contrast and the presence of the pieces that stopped me seeing the irony of a statue called “Mankind” being in the form of a woman.  Humankind maybe?

I liked Morgen an der Friedhofsmauer (Morning at Cemetery Wall) with its amazingly lifelike and detailed red brick wall above the top of which you can see monuments and statues.  The artist, Franz Radziwill, was born and worked in Germany and in the 1930s became a strong supporter of Nazism.  So, should we no longer appreciate his art?

A piece by another German, Franz Lenk, called Old Military showed a wooden structure in the foreground, water filling it; a bare trunk of a tree; and a red house with a steep roof behind them.  The foreground structure is supposed to be a vestige of the war, now decaying.  I didn’t see the decay, although, thinking about it, if this is a trench then the fact that it is full of water means it is in disrepair.  I’m not sure it worked for me now, looking back from 2018.

Quite a few of the pieces seemed to be hung in pairs, contrasting styles between countries.  There were two portraits of women.  In the first, by Briton Meredith Frampton of Marguerite Kelsey is a fine portrait of a woman with her knees bent under her sitting on a large comfortable armchair.  Her cream dress looks like heavy woollen crepe and her skin tone and the curves of her neck and the hands are photographically real even though it is painted in oils.  In the second, by German Rudolf Schlichter is Jenny, greyer and bleaker.  I couldn’t decide if it was about the style of the two artists or if it pointed to the substance of life the 1920s in Britain and Germany?  Looking at this array of art, the impression is that life was wonderful in post-WWI Britain and not in France (also victorious) nor Germany (defeated).

I rather liked the drawing by George Grosz, from Germany, showing large fat and balding men smoking cigars and counting their money at a table while in the background soldiers, including one with crutches, and working men in caps and an old lady with a small child wander aimlessly.  It is called Die Besitzkröten (Toads of Property) 1920.  So, not Fat Cats, but Property Toads, in German.  I wonder if that is still an expression in Germany?

There is some parallel with a painting by Briton Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson.  Called He Gained a Fortune but He Gave a Son from 1918 it is said to be a rare British portrait of profiteers.  The man is fat and balding but he is not counting his money.  He is in his parlour and has a picture of his son in uniform on his mantelpiece to remind him of his loss.  This creates a shared experience between him and the viewer and softens the idea that he might have profiteered.

Another work by George Grosz is in this room and was also chosen as the key picture in the publicity for the exhibition.  It is now called Grauer Tag (Grey Day) and was painted in 1921.  However, it was first exhibited as ‘Council Official for Disabled Veterans’ Welfare’.  It shows a street scene with quite a flat perspective.  In the front is a plump-looking, well-dressed man with hat and briefcase – and a badge on his lapel.  The original title suggests he is responsible for the welfare of the soldier with a stick behind him.  With just Grey Day it becomes more a documentation of the different people in the city: officials, soldiers, manual labourers and clerks (skulking in the top right).

Across Europe, the working man became quite a hero in paintings.  There is a copy in the exhibition of a famous painting of men singing the communist and socialist anthem, the Internationale.  We are seeing a copy, painted by the Ingrid Griebel-Zietlow, the daughter of the original artist, Otto Griebel, because the original is too fragile to travel.  A group of men stand with their arms by the sides and their mouths open.  They are all individual, dressed according to their trades, including a miner with his lamp.  There are no women and most are Anglo-Saxon, although there may be a Mediterranean or two.  It changes the way we see it today.

There is another portrait of a woman that is worth mentioning: Jeanne Mammen’s Valeska Gert. She was a well-known German Jewish performance artist, actress, artist’s model and dancer in 1920s Berlin who left Germany when the Nazis banned her from the stage and became well-known as a pioneer even to the Punk movement of the 1970s and 1980s, apparently.  The picture does not provide much detail but a great overall impression of the person.  Almost Bjork-like.

The picture of the city that I liked best was another by Briton Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson: Soul of the Soulless City 1920.  It is clearly American with the elevated railway through skyscrapers.  It is all squares and harsh lines but has a palette of soft beige to tan with blue highlights.  I like that.  This, like Grey Day, is another picture where the artist exhibited it first under a different title.  In this case, Nevinson originally entitled New York – an Abstraction when he was enamoured of that city’s energy and dynamism.  He gave it the current title only after he became somewhat disillusioned.


James Cook: The Voyages at the British Library

Nothing to do this weekend?  Can get to London?  Go to the James Cook: The Voyages exhibition at the British Library!  Honest! It’s brilliant.  I know this seems like part 2 of the “Reviews that are too late to be of much use” series, but even so, I’ve only just had a chance to get to see it and it really is worth viewing.

It’s 250 years since the Endeavour set sail from Plymouth for James Cook’s first voyage; hence, the exhibition, which brings together pictures, drawn and painted by naturalists and artists on the ships, maps, handwritten logbooks and journals, artefacts and videos exploring the voyages and their impact not only on the Europeans but also on the peoples of the Pacific then and now.  As such, it is a welcome example of how we can address our history, working with our fellow humans from around the planet.  Everyone emerges richer from the encounter.

To find out more about the exhibition click here.  Also, if you can’t make it to London before it closes on Tuesday 28 August 2018, you can explore some of the material on the James Cook: The Voyages website.

The British Library’s PACCAR Gallery is a subterranean gallery accessed via an anteroom on the ground floor to the left of the Library as you enter.  There is a lift as well as stairs.  The anteroom provides an introduction to the exhibition showing European and Oceania art and a globe with the three voyages marked on it. It is a good way in and demonstrates the idea that this is intended to be a global exhibition, showing all perspectives.

The space has been divided up so that there is a central hub that represents Great Britain and Europe from where the voyages started and where various participants communicated to the public about what they had found.  As you go through the Hub the first time, there is a Joshua Reynolds portrait of Joseph Banks who funded the scientists and artists on the first voyage.  He was a fine looking man with a look of the Ross Poldarks about him – right sort of period too.  This introduction provides context on the Enlightenment, which was driving the development of new ideas in philosophy and science.  It tries to show how science, trade and national identity intermingled in the late 18th Century Britain.  This is why these voyages of discovery were so significant in Britain.

Leading off the central hub are three winding galleries that take you along the route of the three voyages and show you pictures and journals created during each one and the related artefacts.  There are 2- to 3-minute films that give wider perspectives on the voyages.  There are high partitions along each voyage trail, cut in a meandering way at the top.  I think the pattern might be related to the route of the voyages around the Southern Seas.  That is quite poetic if it is but maybe a bit lost on the visitor since it is not explained.

One of the main reasons for the expeditions was the creation of maps.  It is difficult to remember that these regions of our world where members of my family now live were not mapped before Cook went down there.  He mapped New Zealand and the Eastern Coast of Australia.  The exhibition includes the maps that he drew.  They are amazing pieces of work, quite exquisite and painstaking, hand-drawn of course, and showing incredible but necessary detail.  Together with the drawings and paintings of places and flora and fauna, they show “art” where the purpose is most easily identified.  This is art as documentation of new discoveries.  Given that, it was amusing to see how in group scenes, in particular, the artists made the peoples of the Pacific look like Greek statues.  That wasn’t the case for individual portraits where the sitters look just that: individual, but for groups it was as if the conventions and training of their native world weighed too heavily on the artists.

The journals and log books are in horizontal glass cabinets and it can be hard to read them.  Cook’s, in particular, are written in a very small hand.  Others’ are quite florid and the script is difficult to decipher for us.  I noted that Joseph Banks’s journal was very neat.  Even if we can’t read them, there is normally an interpretation providing the key message of the page shown.  It is remarkable how compelling it is to see the log books and journals that these men actually wrote in themselves 250 years ago.

The exhibition presents information about the Polynesian high priest and navigator, Tupaia, who accompanied Cook from Tahiti to New Zealand and Australia.  One of the objections of the Polynesian people today is that the names of the Polynesian chiefs and many of the people drawn by the European artists are not known.  It is good that at least Tupaia’s name is known and that his contribution to the first voyage is acknowledged here.

Researchers are using the journals and logs of the expedition to ferret out information about the life of the peoples they met.  In this way, recently, evidence came to light that some of the pictures in the collection were created by Tupaia, not by Europeans.  His work is correctly attributed to him in this exhibition.  I thought some of his earlier work showed a simpler style than that of the European artists of the day.  They have a flatter perspective.  However, they often show greater detail and more accurate detail, especially where he is capturing costumes and buildings that have specific meaning to his people.

The contemporary journals also provide insights into the differences in culture between Europe and the Pacific.  For example, in Tahiti, during the first voyage, in his journal Joseph Banks wrote about a shooting challenge issued by one of the Europeans.  The Tahitians took it up but then there were difficulties: the Europeans assumed it would be a challenge as to accuracy, which they thought was more important and at which they were better; the Tahitians assumed it would be a challenge as to distance, which they thought was more important and at which they are better.

The voyages were costly in terms of people – several of the artists and scientists, including artist Sydney Parkinson, and Tupaia himself died of diseases as the ship was starting its return to Europe.  This puts into perspective voyages of discovery that we make today into space.

There are also the people killed in the misunderstandings between cultures.  James Cook was not a whole-hearted supporter of the idea of claiming the territories for the Crown.  His secret orders required him to do this although they do say that it should be with the consent of the inhabitants (without perhaps any thought of how to obtain meaningful consent when the parties have no common language nor frame of reference).  From his journals, it is clear that he was keen to develop good relationships with the people he met but also if that failed, he was still ready to use violence and superiority of arms to win out, despite his misgivings.  Expedition members died in these encounters and are named; most of the indigenous people who died were not named.

As you move between voyages, the central hub allows us a glimpse of how the British reacted to the discoveries that the explorers brought back.  They were interested and they were fascinated by Mai, the man from Tahiti who accompanied the second expedition back to Britain.  However, the artists presented their pictures in a European style so that they would be more easily accepted.  Just like James Cook himself, there were some who were unhappy with what we were doing in trying to control and take possession of these far territories.  Satirical writings were published expressing some of the concerns.  It struck me that this is similar to satire and criticism today of our government’s policies.  We even have demonstrations against wars.  All this activity indicates disquiet but doesn’t necessarily change what happens.  Do they absolve us of responsibility for what is done in our name?

The videos as you go around the exhibition are worth watching.  They are only 2 or 3 minutes long and they run on a loop so you don’t have to wait long to see the whole piece.  It is extremely interesting to see how the people of the Pacific feel about Cook.  He has long been feted as a hero of the British Empire and the discoverer of new lands.  The indigenous peoples see him as an invader and an enabler of subjugation and know that the lands had already been discovered.  There are movements in many of these places to remove statues of Cook, just as there are similar movements around the world for other men of the last few centuries.

The last summary video contained some good advice on this topic, from a ranger at the Northern Queensland site where Cook’s expedition landed during the first voyage.  Unfortunately, I thought the videos were online so I didn’t write down his name (yes, I acknowledge the irony and am going to go back to get the information before the exhibition closes).  He said that what happened in the past doesn’t matter because we cannot change it.  There is no use looking to blame those historical figures.  Instead, we need to acknowledge one another in the present and to work together to build the future.  For me, it was a hopeful ending to an enlightening exhibition.


All Too Human at Tate Britain


There are a few more days to catch All Too Human at Tate Britain and, if you are a member, you can go early before the crowds next weekend, including Bank Holiday Monday 27 August 2018, its last day.  However, the question is: would I advise you to spend your time in that way?

It’s a good question.  When I arrived home, still feeling confused, I was glad to find that at least two of the critics agreed with me: both Martin Gayford in the Spectator and Waldemar Januszczak in The Times (of London) thought it was “magnificent paintings, oddly curated”, to borrow Mr Gayford’s summary.

I couldn’t find any articles from the curators, Elena Crippa and Laura Castagnini, and there was no AV guide to provide their vision, just a few introductory remarks on the website, here.  The big idea of “Capturing a Century of Painting Life” seemed lost in a selection of different types of works portraying, amongst other things, the human body, still lives, portraits and street scenes.  It felt as if the central idea was so obvious that I should get it without any help.  I was glad when I got home that I found that experienced art critics didn’t get it any more than I did.

So, what is good?  Well, the core of the exhibition is the work by Lucian Freud and Francis Bacon, as the full title, All Too Human: Bacon, Freud and a Century of Painting Life, makes clear.  They have a room each and also a couple of other pieces dotted around.  What comes before attempts to provide some context for what they did, and what comes afterwards shows how more recent artists have portrayed life.  Whether you find it a worthwhile exercise may depend on whether you enjoy seeing the work of these central figures.

As it happens, Francis Bacon’s work disturbs and disgusts me – and not in that good way of making me see something from another perspective.  I find it ugly to no purpose.  I thought that when I saw a far more extensive exhibition in Sydney in 2013 and the few works here did not change my mind.  However, I did realise, looking at it in conjunction with the photographs in the same room, that the pictures are like capturing in one image the effect of flashing a moving image backwards and forwards to distort – a video effect beloved of the era of Tom Baker’s Doctor Who.

Lucian Freud, meanwhile, I’ve not seen much of before so I did enjoy seeing his works.  He first appears in this exhibition demonstrating William Coldstream’s style of analytical work and smooth brushstrokes.  There is Girl with Kitten 1947 and Girl with White Dog 1950-1.  I liked these for the smoothness and the detail but even so, I found them not quite right: the kitten was cartoonish and the girl with the white dog was his wife from whom she separated soon after.  Maybe, unlike Picasso’s mistress, she didn’t enjoy being seen and painted.

Room 7 is dedicated to him with works after 1960 when he had moved away from those smooth effects, painted with a small brush, to coarser brushstrokes, and also to a perspective from above, rather than close to the subject.  I found that I liked most of the material in this room.  The first two pictures are Man’s Head (self-portrait I) 1961 and Baby on green sofa 1961.  These were lovely.  The coarser brushstrokes and the slightly geometric presentation with sharp contrast of dark and light create weight and volume, making the result much more lifelike.  The notes suggest this is grotesque but I didn’t feel it was.  It was what humans look like: planes and hollows as skin and flesh sit across our bones.

There were quite a few of Freud’s full-length nudes, male and female.  Ah, that’s where I feel more uncomfortable.  I don’t like seeing the naked body especially when it is so realistic.  Maybe Mr Freud’s grandfather would have something to say about that.  But, there were also some rather amazing other pictures.  Two Plants 1977-80 is a large canvas, 1.5m by 1.2m, and it is completely filled with leaves, small almost round leaves from one plant extending over the whole space and shading from brown through yellow to green and large succulent leaves growing out like large lily leaves.  I found this mesmerising.  When I sat on the welcome bench, from a few feet away, it looked real.  Then The Big Man 1976-7 seemed so real to me that I expected him to get up and start mansplaining any moment.  (I know, unkind, but look at the date and the self-satisfaction in his three-piece suit and splayed legs).  Freud was never gentle to his sitters.  He shows them warts and all.  Lastly, and certainly not least, I’ll mention the head of Leigh Bowery 1991 .  I was not aware of Leigh Bowery before reading the notes online but the picture was striking.  As I walked around Room 7 it stood out and looked as if it were sculpture, not painting, standing out in relief from the canvas.  The paint is quite thick but not sufficiently so to create that effect.  It is the technique and lifelike portrayal.

The gallery notes mentioned that at this later period he started painting standing up.  This meant that his point of view changed to be above the sitter.  I think this is why his figures often seem distorted – the legs and feet are bigger, monumental even, while the heads seem too small.  It seems slightly odd in a painting but it must be the point of view we have of people in real life.  Maybe this is one of the times when our brains play tricks on us, making us think we see the person in the proportions we know them to have rather than as our eyes actually perceive them.

For me, the discovery of Lucian Freud in the flesh, if you like, was probably worth going to this exhibition, despite its odd curation.  In addition, there were some other discoveries that were valuable to me.

Just inside the first door, there are two splendid Stanley Spencer pieces: if you turn around and look at the door, on your left is Portrait of Patricia Preece (his second wife) 1933 where she is looking feisty, leaning forward and looking out of the picture, and on your right is Nude Portrait of Patricia Preece 1935 where she is a little more languid but still looks as if she is doubtful of the point of the painting.

Then there were a few paintings by David Bomberg around the exhibition, as well as Room 5 dedicated to the way he taught art at Borough Polytechnic in South London, “rendering of the physical experience of a person or landscape, rather than just a recording of their appearance”.  He seemed to have a very autumnal palette, browns and greens and reds, which I liked but his chaotic, geometric treatment meant that the subject was sometimes unrecognisable, for example, I know the bridge at Ronda, Andalucia, very well but I did not recognise it at all from his The Bridge and the River Tajo, Ronda  I did, however, really like his view of Toledo so that was just a one-off.

I thought that Frank Auerbach had prefigured the perspective of many smartphone photographs with his Chimney in Mornington Crescent Winter Morning 1991, looking up from the street, making everything else look a little wonky.  It amused me.

Room 10 was devoted to Paula Rego a painter who ploughed a lonely furrow as a woman continuing to paint canvasses full of people, showing a woman’s perspective on life.  I thought I’d understand these canvasses for that reason, being a woman myself, but I didn’t find them particularly engaging despite being well painted.  One did draw me in.  The Family 1988, painted just before her husband died of a degenerative disease, showed a woman and two other females, dressing or undressing a grown man.  It disturbed me because it is about the small indignities of life with sickness, even though it is also an image of a family caring for its own.

The final gallery, room 11, was another good reason for seeing this exhibition – it contained the work of four current artists, born between 1959 and 1971, and all women.  It was good to see figurative art alive and so well in the present day.

I liked Celia Paul’s Family Group 1984-6.  She uses big brush strokes of contrasting colours, which are not realistic in appearance but which convey emotion.  I also liked Cecily Brown’s Teenage Wildlife, which is quite racy with a glimpse, as if from a passing car, of tangled branches and bare skin behind as two figures embrace.

Jenny Saville’s Reverse 2002-3 is a self-portrait but just of her head, lying down, with a reflection below it.  Her head is huge and it is intriguing and disturbing in equal parts.

Lynete Yiadom-Boakye paints stories, not from life, and gives them interesting titles to make the viewer think and imagine what they are about.  The Host over a barrel 2014 shows three young black women, with their backs mostly towards us and looking to the left.  Their hair is up and they are in short, dark dresses.  Are they dancers, I wondered?   Then her Coterie of Questions 2015 is a portrait black man, seated, his hands held in front making an O shape, dressed in a pink tee shirt.  He has the most expressive face.  It was wonderful.

And, finally, if you do go, watch out for the exhibits “outside the exhibition” in gallery 61.  I didn’t spot those on site, only from the copy of the Large Print Guide that I downloaded.  I’m not even sure where it is except to say it might be at the other end of the gallery into which you exit, which is the shop.  Another point against the curation, for me.

Note: links are to the best versions of the pictures I could find and
they were active on 22 August 2018.

Happiness? from outside or in?

You’ve got to hand it to the editors at The Guardian/Observer, they have provided argument and counterargument to debate this weekend: about whether happiness comes from external things or from inside us.

Firstly, the Guardian’s Saturday section Weekend provided “If you want to have a good time, ask a Buddhist“, in which the Buddhist they asked (or quoted), Ayya Khema, said: “We may believe that it’s the quality of the sunset that gives us such pleasure, but in fact it is the quality of our own immersion in the sunset that brings the delight.”

Secondly, the Observer Magazine gave us “Reasons to be cheerful: why we should look outside ourselves to find joy” and the author, Ingrid Fetell Lee, spent some time showing us how things, like colours, could give us joy, thereby refuting her statement that “The teachings of Buddha advise that happiness comes only from letting go of our attachments to worldly things.”

Ms Lee is a designer and founded The Aesthetics of Joy as a website “to shed light on the relationship between our environment and our emotions”, being “devoted to a simple, powerful idea: that our greatest source of joy is the world around us”.  There is a book coming out in September 2018. The Guardian columnist also has a book out on the topic but doesn’t advertise it in the column.

My conclusion is that they are both right!  Good design, well executed, and the external environment, be it man-made or natural, do give us moments of joy and support our overall wellbeing.  However, I find Ms Lee’s dismissal of Buddhist teaching too simplistic, her stance undermining her main argument.  As the Saturday article explains, the idea is to recognise moments of joy or happiness, however fleeting and wherever they arise, and to focus on the feeling.  Focusing on the feeling helps us remain happier longer and will increase our wellbeing more than focusing only on the specific thing that created the emotion in the first place.

So, bring on the joy-bringing design, Ms Lee, and then let’s focus on the joy and create a joyful life!

Picasso in 1932 at Tate Modern

Picasso has not been one of my favourite artists.  The distorted figures that I saw in pictures of his pictures put me off.  However, I went to the Tate Modern The EY Exhibition Picasso 1932 – Love, Fame, Tragedy with an open mind.  I returned with a much greater appreciation of Picasso’s skill at painting and of his work.

The exhibition continues in the Eyal Ofer Galleries on the third floor of the Boiler Room in Tate Modern (the building nearer the river) until 9 September 2018.  To find out more about it, click here.

The conceit of the exhibition is that it covers one year in Picasso’s life, 1932.  We are told that “1932 was an intensely creative period in the life of the 20th century’s most influential artist.”  The rooms are organised in chronological order for the most part and it is striking just how many paintings and other artworks Picasso created in a year.  He said, “I paint the way some people write an autobiography. The paintings, finished or not, are the pages from my diary.”

The curators “cheat” a little in that they include works from before and after 1932 but that is partly to show the contrast and how Picasso changed through the years.  For example, they tell us that in the 1920s Picasso used black & white and a limited palette and started to use a lot of colour in the 1930s and that he sculpted a lot in 1931 but we can see that he painted in 1932.  The other (good) excuse for cheating is his Retrospective exhibition, which he organised in the Northern hemisphere’s summer months.  This included older work and so the central room of the current exhibition provides examples of his Blue Period and cubism and realistic family portraiture.

Picasso started the year in Paris, painting many different versions of a woman sitting in a chair, indeed almost swallowed by the chair.  In them, he experiments with different styles – cubism and surrealism.  The women in them have dark hair or, increasingly, blond hair.  They are deemed to show his inner turmoil about the two women in his life: his wife, Olga who has dark hair, and his mistress, Marie-Thérèse Walter who has blond hair.  They are also full of symbolism of sexuality, some more obvious than others.  I saw the symbolism only after it was pointed out to me but I can’t say I read all these meanings into the works without help.

However, I did feel discomfort and maybe even disgust when viewing Le Repos from January 1932 (there’s another later one so don’t confuse it!  This one was sold by Christies in New York in 2006 for US$34m!  See here for a picture.)  Then I felt comforted and affection when looking at Le Rêve, painted in the same month. You can see the latter here and it is the lead image in most of the advertising for the exhibition.

Le Repos (Rest in French) seems ironic since there seems little rest in the picture.  It shows a dark-haired figure sitting in a chair but grotesquely distorted with boobs flying and a screaming mouth.  The background, though roughly painted with thick brush-strokes, is more realistic with a dark patterned floor and walls.  The impression is dehumanised and I can’t imagine Olga was too pleased with the painting, if or when she saw it.  It has lots of energy though, just unpleasant energy.

Le Rêve (The Dream in French) provides a contrast.  The figure of the woman, while not entirely realistic, is much more so.  Cradled in a red chair, her head is laid back in sleep.  The paint is smooth, applied with a palette knife, apparently.  The colours are soft and gentle.  Her hair is blond.  (This whole saga of dark hair and blond hair reminded me of Tosca, jealous when she sees Cavaradossi’s painting of Mary Magdalene, based on an aristocrat he has seen come to pray.  He tells Tosca he loves only her but, after all his protestations, her last words on exiting the scene are: “Ma falla gli occhi neri!” (But make the eyes black!).  I wondered whether Olga ever asked Pablo to make the hair dark.

Another work on display is Girl before a Mirror, 14 March 1932.  There’s a good image and short description here on the site of New York’s Museum of Modern Art.  This is an acknowledged masterpiece.  It reminded me of stained glass windows.  I appreciated the quality of the painting and recognised the voluptuousness of the woman (her hair is blond) but it didn’t speak to me of any of the ideas that are suggested in the guides.

As well as all of the large-scale paintings, there are some enchanting smaller pieces.  Amongst those, I particularly liked the views of Boisgeloup, his Normandy country house.  They are small and they are almost sketched, sometimes with cubist portrayal of the buildings.  The ones painted at the end of March 1932 show rain and in May there is also a rainbow.  They are not quite realistic but they are figurative and I think, all in all, this is my preference still.

In the same room, Room 5, there are some other paintings showing distortion of the human shape again.  They look like octopuses and are quite disturbing.  There is also a film, made in 1928, of octopuses, just to highlight the similarity.  The film disturbed me further, in large part because these octopuses are scurrying over land.  Shiver!

The current exhibition’s recreation of a little of the 1932 Retrospective was good.  It had examples of earlier work and styles, which highlight just how versatile Picasso was.  I really loved Girl in a Chemise ca 1905.  It has very little in the way of background but you can see his ability to paint realistic faces.  I thought this was lovely and peaceful which is slightly different from the general interpretation of melancholy and pain, arising from the choice of blue paint.  See what you think here.

There are a series of family portraits including Olga in an Armchair from 1917 or 1918.  It showed a beautiful form and details of the fabric even though the background is rough and unfinished.  It is a lovely portrait of his first wife around the time he married her.   See it here.

Obviously, there are far more works in the exhibition and I did find some of the more cubist or surreal works were interesting and attractive in different ways.  What I appreciate is that Picasso is almost always figurative.  He may use modern, distorting techniques, rather than realistic portrayals of people and objects, but he is providing more information about the subject matter or about the psychology of the subject matter.  I did not always see what the curators said I should see but I start to enjoy the work more.

The work of the last quarter of 1932 is much darker.  There are a series of works exploring the crucifixion and, indeed, the familiar shape of the crucifix.  Several of the studies are stripped down to be only bones on a cross.  In amongst all these darker pieces was a little collage, using a real leaf and a butterfly captured forever on the little canvass.  That was a quirky, witty piece.

I thought that the audio guide was very good and worth the extra pounds on top of the entrance fee.  It has not only the curators, Achim Borchardt-Hume and Nancy Ireson, talking about the work and its place in Picasso’s life but also paintings conservator Annette King and cultural historian Andrew Hussey.  Annette King speaks about several of the works, pointing out the techniques and materials used.  Andrew Hussey provides the social and political context, e.g. how there was unrest in France and the growing influence of the right across Europe.

The curators claim that through the more than 100 paintings, sculptures and drawings, mixed with family photographs and rare glimpses into his personal life that the exhibition gives, “the myths around Picasso are stripped away to reveal the man and the artist in his full complexity and richness.  You will see him as never before.”

In some ways, this was easy to achieve for me in that I’ve not really seen Picasso much before.  But, certainly, leaving the gallery I knew a lot more about his life, his apartment in Paris and his country house in Normandy and the chauffeur-driven car that shuttled him between the two; his dark-haired wife and his blond-haired mistress; and his habit of painting or sculpting or making art every day, as a response to his life, as a diary.  I think therefore the curatorial claims can be said to be met.

Broken Skin by Stuart Macbride

My review, posted on on Friday 17 August 2018, of the third in the DS Logan Macrae series.

Broken Skin (Logan McRae, #3)Broken Skin by Stuart MacBride

My rating: 4 of 5 stars

Broken Skin has a great opening. The reader sees through the rapist’s eyes as he pursues his next victim (and he’s entirely sure of the number she will carry) through the streets of Aberdeen. This gives the reader an uncomfortable advantage through the book: we know who did it and why the investigation hits problems. It should perhaps give us more sympathy for PC Jackie’s reactions but, in the end, we have a choice to agree with her or with Logan’s dismay.

There is an interesting portrayal of the response of the media, public opinion and the family to serious crime and to accusations against people in the public eye. Even individual police officers have reasons if not to doubt the accusations then to wish the accusations might not be true. Of course, the novel’s opening gives the reader an advantage, as I’ve said, although, to be fair and despite that, I began to doubt at one point what I thought I’d understood about the guilt of a certain party.

Meantime, at the start of the book we arrive in the middle of things – right at the end of a long investigation and yet at the start of another. That sense of there being competing investigations for the police to undertake. There isn’t a lot of catch up but quick sentences fill in how the people relate one to the other, in case the reader has forgotten or is new to the series. It is cleverly done. Aberdeen is in the middle of winter but the weather is less intrusive than it was in the first book. I’m glad about that. It needs to be there (and it is) but I don’t want it to dominate. The unhealthy habits of the senior detectives seem to be getting worse not better so the force’s latest initiative is a bit of a casual joke.

I really enjoyed the book. I was a little worried in the middle about the ability to solve the cases but there is enough movement on one or other case to keep hope alive. And, the idea that restarts the main investigation is one that I had much earlier so I liked that momentary feeling of being better than them. (Is that just me?)

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Book Reviews

I post book reviews on Now they are no longer loading directly to Facebook, I thought I’d try posting them to my own blog too. Here’s today’s: The Somme Legacy.

The Somme Legacy (Jayne Sinclair Genealogical Mystery, #2)The Somme Legacy by M.J. Lee

My rating: 4 of 5 stars

I enjoyed this very much. It is a genealogical mystery with Jayne Sinclair undertaking an unpaid investigation into a marriage that doesn’t appear to have taken place!

I like the mixture of historical and present-day scenes. I also like the fact that, all in all, most of the historical scenes were accessible from the information that she finds in the course of the investigation, or possibly from general historical knowledge. The story covers the period of the First World War and topics which are pretty familiar at the moment with the centenaries we are marking. I recognised the meaning of certain findings before Jayne did but I think that is because she is coming to genealogical investigations from a career in the police, rather than from a background in history. It is a good job that she has friends and family that she can call on for more insights.

It is an engaging story with a hard deadline to rush around for and a mixture of sad and happy parts. There are rounded characters with interesting characteristics and a fair share of good and bad ones. There is an adequate smattering of driving around to undertake research in various genealogical archives, including Gretna Green, which is new for me. Genealogical mysteries often depend for their excitement on interference and sometimes violence from those in the present who do not want the truth to be out. This book follows that convention to a certain extent. However, the present day aggro is psychologically believable and Jayne deals with it all sensibly without jumping to crazy conclusions about the perpetrator and without holding up the story.

A fun, relatively light, book to read if you like genealogical mysteries or even just mysteries.

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